PrimeShred optimizes your body's natural fat burning processes, enabling you to burn fat quickly and easily - and keep it off for good.

By elevating your metabolic rate and harnessing the power of specific hormones and enzymes that control fat burning, PrimeShred annihilates fat at every stage of the fat. burning process.

Combined with the boost in physical and mental energy PrimeShred gives you to support. your cutting efforts, your fat won't stand a chance

Here's how PrimeShred's triple. threat, fully-loaded formula gives. you the fat-burning edge


To burn fat, your body has to first break it down inside your fat cells and move it into your bloodstream where it can be used for energy. This process of breaking down fat is called lipolysis, and is activated by specific hormones and enzymes.
PrimeShred is loaded with ingredients that trigger lipolysis and speed the rate of fat breakdown by increasing levels of these hormones and boosting their effects..
  • L-tyrosine, rhodiola, caffeine, green tea and the capsaicin in cayenne pepper all boost production and increase the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine, notorious fat burning hormones that trigger lipolysis[11].

  • Caffeine, L-theanine, chlorogenic acid in green coffee and catechins in green tea have all been found to significantly reduce triglyceride levels[2]. Triglycerides are a form of fat stored in your fat cells. They account for the majority of the fat stored in your body. By reducing triglyceride levels, PrimeShred helps shrink stubborn fat cells.

  • Rhodiola and capsaicin speed the rate of fat breakdown by activating a fat burning enzyme called hormone-sensitive lipase[3](HSL). HSL breaks down triglycerides inside fat cells. The more active. HSL is, the more triglycerides are broken down and released from your cells.

  • Studies have suggested that capsaicin may help reduce stubborn belly fat by boosting hormone- sensitive lipase levels specifically in the abdominal area. One 12 week study showed that just 6mg of capsaicin daily was enough to reduce belly fat[4].

  • Caffeine, green coffee, green tea and capsaicin increase levels of adiponectin[5],  another fat burning hormone. Adiponectin is produced and released by your fat cells. It improves your body's ability to use carbohydrates for energy, boosts your metabolism and increases the rate of fat breakdown[6].


Once fat has been freed from your cells, it can be used for energy. In other words, it can be burned.


Enter your metabolism – the process of burning free fatty acids released by lipolysis for energy. The faster your metabolism, the faster you burn fat. Even when you’re not doing a thing.


A faster metabolism also turns more of the calories you eat straight into energy instead of storing them as fat.


PrimeShred contains powerful thermogenic ingredients that stimulate your metabolism to burn more energy for fuel. Which means you’ll burn fat round the clock and reshape your physique faster.

  • Cayenne pepper, green tea, green coffee and caffeine all increase thermogenesis and speed up your metabolism[7]. One study found that capsaicinoids in chilli pepper increased fat burn by 50 calories per day[8]. Other studies have shown that caffeine can increase resting metabolic rate by up to 11%[9]and boost fat burning by as much as 29%[10].

  • L-theanine, catechins in green tea and chlorogenic acid in coffee and green coffee improve your metabolism by reducing the amount of fat and carbohydrates your body absorbs when you eat[11]. Studies have shown that catechin and caffeine together can increase metabolism by 4% and boost fat burning by 16% for 24 hours after taking them[12]

  • Green tea catechins have also been found to increase the rate of fat burned during exercise[13]. In one study, men who took a sports drink containing green tea extract before exercise burned 17% more fat than men who didn’t[14].

  • Vitamins B3, B6 and B12 help convert calories from food into energy rather than fat, making them essential for a well functioning metabolism[15] that burns fat efficiently. Vitamin B6 also helps with the production of L-carnitine, an amino acid that helps your body use fat for energy.

  • L-tyrosine is directly involved in the manufacture of key thyroid hormones[16] which keep your metabolism running optimally. Researchers have found that higher levels of these thyroid hormones lead to increased weight loss[17] By supporting healthy thyroid function, L-tyrosine helps keep your metabolism revved up and running smoothly.

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Cutting back on calories and carbs can leave you feeling like crap. And when you're constantly struggling with low energy levels and mental lethargy, making it through your next workout - let alone your cut - can sometimes feel impossible.

PrimeShred combines potent, energy-fuelling ingredients with powerful, brain-boosting nootropics to help you keep up with demanding workouts, keep your head in the game and stay focused on your goal.

  • Caffeine, green coffee and green tea reduce tiredness and lethargy[18] by blocking adenosine[19], a chemical that makes you feel tired. This increases the release of dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine, neurotransmitters that make you feel more awake, energized, alert and focused.

  • Rhodiola improves your energy and endurance during workouts by improving ATP[20] and EPO production. ATP is your body's main energy source during exercise and EPO helps create red blood cells which transport oxygen to your muscles. The more oxygen your muscles receive while you train, the better you can perform. Studies have shown that rhodiola boosts exercise performance and decreases perceived effort exerted (how difficult your workout feels) by enhancing oxygen delivery during exercise[21].

  • L-theanine boosts the effects of caffeine while smoothing out the edge caffeine can give, creating a relaxed but alert and focused feeling. A 2013 study found that just 97mg of L-theanine and 40mg of caffeine helped people feel less tired, more alert and improved their focus during demanding tasks[22]

  • L-theanine also helps increase energy and reduce fatigue during workouts by increasing nitric oxide production[23]. Nitric oxide widens your blood vessels and increases blood flow, enabling your muscles to receive more oxygen and nutrients as you train. L-theanine and rhodiola together can help make those tough workouts and tiring cardio sessions a little less gruelling.

  • L-tyrosine and rhodiola reduce mental fatigue and improve focus and concentration[24] by increasing serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine activity. These neurotransmitters play a key role in mental. alertness and cognitive function. Studies have found that people with higher levels of L-tyrosine feel less fatigue than those with lower levels[25]

  • B vitamins are crucial for converting food into energy. Regular exercise drains your body of B-vits faster, so the. more active you are the more B vits you need. PrimeFuel keeps you topped up with vitamins B3, B6 and B12, helping you maintain your energy levels and reduce the feelings of tiredness and fatigue[26] that even the most experienced bodybuilders encounter during a cut.

  • DMAE increases production of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that can improve focus and alertness. Acetylcholine is also critically involved in muscle. contraction. By increasing acetylcholine, DMAE sharpens your focus and strengthens the mind-muscle connection. that's crucial to your results in the gym.

  • L-theanine and DMAE improve the quality of your sleep[27], helping you feel refreshed, energized and mentally ready to tackle each day of your cut. L-theanine boosts levels of GABA, a calming brain chemical that . promotes relaxation and sleep, while DMAE increases acetylcholine production, which helps regulate REM sleep. Quality sleep can make a huge difference to your cutting efforts. One study found that when dieters got a full night's sleep, more than half the weight they lost was fat[28]

Plus! Mood-boosting complex improves your mood and relieves stress.

Cutting can be a stressful experience. Even for experienced bodybuilders. And whether or not you fall off the wagon and break your diet or ditch the gym can often boil down to one thing: how you happen to be feeling at that moment.


PrimeShred’s mood-boosting complex stops you being held hostage by your emotions and helps you stay mentally tough throughout your cut.


By relieving feelings of stress and improving your mood, PrimeShred can help you remain positive, motivated and focused on your goals. Both those day-to-day “get your ass to the gym” goals and the overall “get totally shredded” goal.

  • L-tyrosine, L-theanine and caffeine help improve your mood and relieve feelings of stress[29] by elevating levels of the "happy hormones" dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine. These major feel-good chemicals in your brain promote positive feelings and happiness[30]

  • B vitamins convert amino acids into mood-boosting chemicals like serotonin and norepinephrine, which also helps your body respond to stress. Vitamins B3, B6, B12 - all in PrimeShred - have all been associated. with helping to fend off feelings of depression.

  • L-tyrosine supports your mood by playing a key role in the production of the feel-good hormone norepinephrine. Norepinephrine, together with other hormones, helps the body respond to stress and plays an important. role in the limbic system, which is responsible for regulating emotions.

  • DMAE enhances your mood and motivation. One study found that DMAE reduced depression, irritability and anxiety while also increasing motivation[31].

  • Rhodiola helps control levels of the main stress hormone cortisol[32]. Cortisol helps your body deal with stress, but too much of it can derail your progress by causing fatigue and interfering with chemicals in your brain that influence your mood. By helping maintain healthy cortisol levels, rhodiola can help you manage the stress of cutting while ensuring your mood doesn’t suffer.

Clinical References (Click to view).

[1] Tyrosine is the precursor of epinephrine: 
National Library of Medicine, Compound Summary: Tyrosine 

[1] Rhodiola rosea stimulates norepinephrine activity: 
American Botanical Council, Issue: 56, Page: 40-52,  Rhodiola rosea: A Phytomedicinal Overview 

[1] Caffeine Increases blood levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine:  
Keijzers GB, De Galan BE, Tack CJ, Smits P. Caffeine can decrease insulin sensitivity in humans. Diabetes Care. 2002 Feb;25(2):364-9. doi: 10.2337/diacare.25.2.364. PMID: 11815511

[1] Green tea increases thermogenesis and inhibits an enzyme that degrades norepinephrine: 
Shixian Q, VanCrey B, Shi J, Kakuda Y, Jiang Y. Green tea extract thermogenesis-induced weight loss by epigallocatechin gallate inhibition of catechol-O-methyltransferase. J Med Food. 2006 Winter;9(4):451-8. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2006.9.451. PMID: 17201629

[1] Capsaicin stimulates the release of adrenaline: 
Tremblay A, Arguin H, Panahi S. Capsaicinoids: a spicy solution to the management of obesity? Int J Obes (Lond). 2016 Aug;40(8):1198-204. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2015.253. Epub 2015 Dec 21. PMID: 26686003

[2] Both in vitro and animal experiments have shown that green tea catechins can significantly reduce levels of plasma triglycerides:  
Xu, R., Yang, K., Li, S. et al. Effect of green tea consumption on blood lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutr J 19, 48 (2020). 

[2] Theanine and green tea catechins significantly reduced triglyceride levels in the serum and livers of laboratory mice: 
Zheng G, Sayama K, Okubo T, Juneja LR, Oguni I. Anti-obesity effects of three major components of green tea, catechins, caffeine and theanine, in mice. In Vivo. 2004 Jan-Feb;18(1):55-62. PMID: 15011752

[3] Capsaicin significantly up-regulated levels of genes involved in lipid catabolism such as hormone sensitive lipase (HSL): Lee MS, Kim CT, Kim IH, Kim Y. Effects of capsaicin on lipid catabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Phytother Res. 2011 Jun;25(6):935-9. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3339. Epub 2010 Nov 17. PMID: 21626599

[3] Capsaicin treatment boosted visceral adipose expression of hormone-sensitive lipase:
Kang JH, Kim CS, Han IS, et al. Capsaicin, a spicy component of hot peppers, modulates adipokine gene expression and protein release from obese-mouse adipose tissues and isolated adipocytes, and suppresses the inflammatory responses of adipose tissue macrophages. FEBS Lett 2007;581:4389–96. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2007.07.082

[4] Treatment with 6 mg/d capsinoids orally appeared to be safe and was associated with abdominal fat loss: 
Snitker S, Fujishima Y, Shen H, Ott S, Pi-Sunyer X, Furuhata Y, Sato H, Takahashi M. Effects of novel capsinoid treatment on fatness and energy metabolism in humans: possible pharmacogenetic implications. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jan;89(1):45-50. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.26561. Epub 2008 Dec 3. PMID: 19056576

[5] A review of studies suggests a positive association between coffee and adiponectin level and the positive role of green tea in adiponectin concentration: 
Izadi V, Larijani B, Azadbakht L. Is Coffee and Green Tea Consumption Related to Serum Levels of Adiponectin and Leptin? Int J Prev Med. 2018 Dec 5;9:106. doi: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_37_14. PMID: 30622689

Topical application of capsaicin increased expression of adiponectin, significantly reduced visceral fat and markedly reduced the size of fat cells in mice: 
Lee GR, Shin MK, Yoon DJ, Kim AR, Yu R, Park NH, Han IS. Topical application of capsaicin reduces visceral adipose fat by affecting adipokine levels in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Jan;21(1):115-22. doi: 10.1002/oby.20246. PMID: 23505175

[6] Adiponectin can cause weight loss by raising metabolic rate: 
Penn Medicine News, Apr 21, 2004, Fat Cell Hormone Adiponectin Causes Weight Loss Without Affecting Appetite

[6] Adiponectin has been postulated to play an important role in the modulation of glucose and lipid metabolism in insulin-sensitive tissues in both humans and animals: 
American Diabetes Association, Adiponectin: More Than Just Another Fat Cell Hormone?, Diabetes Care 2003 Aug; 26(8): 2442-2450 

[7] Ingestion of red pepper increased energy expenditure and core temperature: 
Ludy MJ, Mattes RD. The effects of hedonically acceptable red pepper doses on thermogenesis and appetite. Physiol Behav. 2011 Mar 1;102(3-4):251-8. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2010.11.018. Epub 2010 Nov 18. PMID: 21093467

[7] Fresh chili pepper raised metabolic rate for up to 30 minutes after consumption: 
Chaiyata P, Puttadechakum S, Komindr S. Effect of chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens) ingestion on plasma glucose response and metabolic rate in Thai women. J Med Assoc Thai. 2003 Sep;86(9):854-60. PMID: 14649970

[7] Green tea extract intake is associated with increased weight loss due to diet-induced thermogenesis: 
Shixian Q, VanCrey B, Shi J, Kakuda Y, Jiang Y. Green tea extract thermogenesis-induced weight loss by epigallocatechin gallate inhibition of catechol-O-methyltransferase. J Med Food. 2006 Winter;9(4):451-8. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2006.9.451. PMID: 17201629

[7] Caffeine stimulates thermogenesis: 
Astrup, A., Toubro, S., Cannon, S., Hein, P., Breum, L. & Madsen, J. (1990): ‘Caffeine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of its thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers’. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1990 May;51(5):759-67. PMID: 2333832

[7] Caffeine significantly increases metabolic rate during the 3 hr after ingestion: 
Acheson KJ, Zahorska-Markiewicz B, Pittet P, Anantharaman K, Jéquier E. Caffeine and coffee: their influence on metabolic rate and substrate utilization in normal weight and obese individuals. Am J Clin Nutr. 1980 May;33(5):989-97. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/33.5.989. PMID: 7369170

[8] Consumption of capsaicinoids increases energy expenditure by approximately 50 kcal/day: 
Whiting S, Derbyshire E, Tiwari BK. Capsaicinoids and capsinoids. A potential role for weight management? A systematic review of the evidence. Appetite. 2012 Oct;59(2):341-8. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2012.05.015. Epub 2012 May 22. PMID: 22634197

[9] 100mg caffeine increased the resting metabolic rate of both lean and postobese human volunteers by 3-4%: 
Dulloo, A., Geissler, A.C., Horton, T., Collins, A. & Miller, D.S. (1989): ‘Normal caffeine consumption: influence on thermogenesis and daily energy expenditure in lean and postobese human volunteers’. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1989 Jan;49(1):44-50. PMID 2912010

[9]  Caffeine-induced thermogenesis increased metabolic rate by 4% in healthy male volunteers: 
Koot P, Deurenberg P. Comparison of changes in energy expenditure and body temperatures after caffeine consumption. Ann Nutr Metab. 1995;39(3):135-42. doi: 10.1159/000177854. PMID: 7486839

[9] Caffeine ingestion increased energy expenditure 13% and doubled the turnover of lipids in healthy young men: 
Acheson KJ, Gremaud G, Meirim I, Montigon F, Krebs Y, Fay LB, Gay LJ, Schneiter P, Schindler C, Tappy L. Metabolic effects of caffeine in humans: lipid oxidation or futile cycling? Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jan;79(1):40-6. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/79.1.40. PMID: 14684395

[10] Coffee-induced thermogenesis increased lipid oxidation by 29 and 10% in lean and obese women, respectively: 
Bracco D, Ferrarra JM, Arnaud MJ, Jéquier E, Schutz Y. Effects of caffeine on energy metabolism, heart rate, and methylxanthine metabolism in lean and obese women. Am J Physiol. 1995 Oct;269(4 Pt 1):E671-8. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.1995.269.4.E671. PMID: 7485480

[11] L-theanine can regulate glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism:  
Lin L , Zeng L , Liu A , Peng Y , Yuan D , Zhang S , Li Y , Chen J , Xiao W , Gong Z . l-Theanine regulates glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism via insulin and AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Food Funct. 2020 Feb 26;11(2):1798-1809. doi: 10.1039/c9fo02451d. PMID: 32057039

[11] A single dose of green tea extract taken with a test meal decreases starch digestion and absorption:  
Lochocka, K., Bajerska, J., Glapa, A., Fiddler-Witon, A., Nowak, J.K., Szczapa, T., Grebowiec, P., Lisowska, A. & Walkowiak, J. (2015): ‘Green tea extract decreases starch digestion and absorption from a test meal in humans: a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study’. Scientific Reports, 2015 Jul 30;5:12015. PMCID 4520190

[11] Chlorogenic acid modulates glucose and lipid metabolism in both healthy and genetically metabolic disordered conditions:
Meng, S., Cao, J., Feng, Q., Peng, J. & Hu, Y. (2013): ‘Roles of Chlorogenic Acid on Regulating Glucose and Lipids Metabolism: A Review’. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2013; 2013: 801457. PMCID 3766985

[12] Catechin-caffeine mixtures stimulates daily energy expenditure:  
Hursel R, Viechtbauer W, Dulloo AG, Tremblay A, Tappy L, Rumpler W, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. The effects of catechin rich teas and caffeine on energy expenditure and fat oxidation: a meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2011 Jul;12(7):e573-81. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00862.x. Epub 2011 Mar 2. PMID: 2136683

[13] Tea catechin intake increased fat oxidation in both sedentary and exercising conditions: 
Journal of Health Science, Dec 2004, Effects of Combination of Regular Exercise and Tea Catechins Intake on Energy Expenditure in Humans   

[14] Average fat oxidation rates were 17% higher after ingestion of GTE than after ingestion of placebo: 
Venables MC, Hulston CJ, Cox HR, Jeukendrup AE. Green tea extract ingestion, fat oxidation, and glucose tolerance in healthy humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Mar;87(3):778-84. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/87.3.778. PMID: 18326618

[15] Niacin (vitamin B3) and contribution to normal energy‐yielding metabolism: 
European Food Safety Authority, Jul 2015,  

[15] Vitamin B6 and contribution to normal energy‐yielding metabolism: 
European Food Safety Authority, Oct 2010, 

[15] Vitamin B12 and contribution to normal energy‐yielding metabolism: 
European Food Safety Authority, Oct 2009,

[16] Tyrosine is the precursor of thyroid hormones:
National Library of Medicine, Compound Summary, Tyrosine 

[17] Higher baseline free triiodothyronine (T3) and free thyroxine (T4) levels predicted more weight loss among overweight and obese adults with normal thyroid function: 
Endocrineweb, Thyroid Hormones May Help Predict Successful Weight Loss 

[18] Caffeine increases alertness and reduces fatigue: 
Smith A. Effects of caffeine on human behavior. Food Chem Toxicol. 2002 Sep;40(9):1243-55. doi: 10.1016/s0278-6915(02)00096-0. PMID: 12204388

[19] Caffeine works as a nonselective blocker of adenosine receptors: 
Rivera-Oliver M, Díaz-Ríos M. Using caffeine and other adenosine receptor antagonists and agonists as therapeutic tools against neurodegenerative diseases: a review. Life Sci. 2014 Apr 17;101(1-2):1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2014.01.083. Epub 2014 Feb 13. PMID: 24530739

[20] R. rosea extract activated the synthesis or resynthesis of ATP in mitochondria: 
Abidov M, Crendal F, Grachev S, Seifulla R, Ziegenfuss T. Effect of extracts from Rhodiola rosea and Rhodiola crenulata (Crassulaceae) roots on ATP content in mitochondria of skeletal muscles. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2003 Dec;136(6):585-7. doi: 10.1023/b:bebm.0000020211.24779.15. PMID: 15500079

[21] Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise capacity in young healthy volunteers: 
De Bock K, Eijnde BO, Ramaekers M, Hespel P. Acute Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2004 Jun;14(3):298-307. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.14.3.298. PMID: 15256690

Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) was significantly lower at 30 minutes into exercise after rhodiola rosea ingestion versus placebo: 
Duncan MJ, Clarke ND. The Effect of Acute Rhodiola rosea Ingestion on Exercise Heart Rate, Substrate Utilisation, Mood State, and Perceptions of Exertion, Arousal, and Pleasure/Displeasure in Active Men. J Sports Med (Hindawi Publ Corp). 2014;2014:563043. doi: 10.1155/2014/563043. Epub 2014 Apr 27. PMID: 26464892

[22] L-theanine in combination with caffeine helps to focus attention during a demanding cognitive task: 
Giesbrecht T, Rycroft JA, Rowson MJ, De Bruin EA. The combination of L-theanine and caffeine improves cognitive performance and increases subjective alertness. Nutr Neurosci. 2010 Dec;13(6):283-90. doi: 10.1179/147683010X12611460764840. PMID: 21040626

[23] L-theanine administration in vitro enhanced NO production and thereby vasodilation in the artery: 
Siamwala JH, Dias PM, Majumder S, Joshi MK, Sinkar VP, Banerjee G, Chatterjee S. L-theanine promotes nitric oxide production in endothelial cells through eNOS phosphorylation. J Nutr Biochem. 2013 Mar;24(3):595-605. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2012.02.016. Epub 2012 Jul 21. PMID: 22819553

[24] L-tyrosine can replete cognitive resources when more control is needed and, more generally, can act as a cognitive enhancer: 
Colzato LS, Jongkees BJ, Sellaro R, Hommel B. Working memory reloaded: tyrosine repletes updating in the N-back task. Front Behav Neurosci. 2013 Dec 16;7:200. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2013.00200. PMID: 24379768

[24] Compared to a placebo, L-tyrosine promoted cognitive flexibility, supporting the idea that L-tyrosine can facilitate cognitive flexibility by repleting cognitive resources: 
Steenbergen L, Sellaro R, Hommel B, Colzato LS. Tyrosine promotes cognitive flexibility: evidence from proactive vs. reactive control during task switching performance. Neuropsychologia. 2015 Mar;69:50-5. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.01.022. Epub 2015 Jan 16. PMID: 25598314

[24] L-tyrosine significantly enhanced accuracy during tasks compared with placebo: 
Thomas JR, Lockwood PA, Singh A, Deuster PA. Tyrosine improves working memory in a multitasking environment. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1999 Nov;64(3):495-500. doi: 10.1016/s0091-3057(99)00094-5. PMID: 10548261

[24] Rhodiola rosea demonstrated statistically significant improvements in cognition, memory, and concentration, suggesting that rhodiola rosea can reduce general fatigue:  
Darbinyan V, Kteyan A, Panossian A, Gabrielian E, Wikman G, Wagner H. Rhodiola rosea in stress induced fatigue–a double blind cross-over study of a standardized extract SHR-5 with a repeated low-dose regimen on the mental performance of healthy physicians during night duty. Phytomedicine. 2000 Oct;7(5):365-71. doi: 10.1016/S0944-7113(00)80055-0. PMID: 11081987

[24] Rhodiola rosea exerts an anti-fatigue effect that increases mental performance, particularly the ability to concentrate: 
Olsson EM, von Schéele B, Panossian AG. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the standardised extract shr-5 of the roots of Rhodiola rosea in the treatment of subjects with stress-related fatigue. Planta Med. 2009 Feb;75(2):105-12. doi: 10.1055/s-0028-1088346. Epub 2008 Nov 18. PMID: 19016404

[24] Rhodiola may be an effective treatment in subjects suffering from prolonged or chronic fatigue: 
Lekomtseva Y, Zhukova I, Wacker A. Rhodiola rosea in Subjects with Prolonged or Chronic Fatigue Symptoms: Results of an Open-Label Clinical Trial. Complement Med Res. 2017;24(1):46-52. doi: 10.1159/000457918. Epub 2017 Feb 17. PMID: 28219059

[25] Patients without fatigue had increased tyrosine concentrations compared to fatigued patients: 
ter Borg PC, Fekkes D, Vrolijk JM, van Buuren HR. The relation between plasma tyrosine concentration and fatigue in primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. BMC Gastroenterol. 2005 Mar 24;5:11. doi: 10.1186/1471-230X-5-11. PMID: 15790420

[26] Niacin (vitamin B3) and reduction of tiredness and fatigue: 
European Food Safety Authority, Oct 2010, 

[26] Vitamin B6 and reduction of tiredness and fatigue:
European Food Safety Authority, Oct 2010,  

[26] Vitamin B12 and reduction of tiredness and fatigue:  
European Food Safety Authority, Oct 2010, 

[27] Boys who consumed L-theanine obtained significantly higher sleep percentage and sleep efficiency scores compared to those in a placebo group: 
Lyon MR, Kapoor MP, Juneja LR. The effects of L-theanine (Suntheanine®) on objective sleep quality in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Altern Med Rev. 2011 Dec;16(4):348-54. PMID: 22214254

[28] When dieters got adequate sleep, more than half of the weight they lost was fat. When they cut back on their sleep, only one-fourth of their weight loss came from fat: 
University of Chicago Medical Center. “Sleep loss limits fat loss.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 5 October 2010.

[29] Oral administration of tyrosine can increase brain norepinephrine concentrations and activity: 
Gelenberg AJ, Wojcik JD, Gibson CJ, Wurtman RJ. Tyrosine for depression. J Psychiatr Res. 1982-1983;17(2):175-80. doi: 10.1016/0022-3956(82)90019-x. PMID: 6764934

[29] Tyrosine significantly decreased symptoms, adverse moods, and performance impairments in response to environmental stress:
Banderet LE, Lieberman HR. Treatment with tyrosine, a neurotransmitter precursor, reduces environmental stress in humans. Brain Res Bull. 1989 Apr;22(4):759-62. doi: 10.1016/0361-9230(89)90096-8. PMID: 2736402

[29] L-theanine has the potential to promote mental health in people with stress-related ailments and cognitive impairments: 
Hidese S, Ogawa S, Ota M, Ishida I, Yasukawa Z, Ozeki M, Kunugi H. Effects of L-Theanine Administration on Stress-Related Symptoms and Cognitive Functions in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2019 Oct 3;11(10):2362. doi: 10.3390/nu11102362. PMID: 31623400

[29] Oral intake of L-Theanine could cause anti-stress effects via the inhibition of cortical neuron excitation: 
Kimura K, Ozeki M, Juneja LR, Ohira H. L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses. Biol Psychol. 2007 Jan;74(1):39-45. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2006.06.006. Epub 2006 Aug 22. PMID: 16930802

[30] Neurotransmitters (e.g. dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine and endorphin) play a role in control of happiness: 
Dfarhud D, Malmir M, Khanahmadi M. Happiness & Health: The Biological Factors- Systematic Review Article. Iran J Public Health. 2014 Nov;43(11):1468-77. PMID: 26060713

[31] Deanol (2-dimethylaminoethanol) reduced depression, irritability and anxiety, and increased motivation-initiative: 
Ferris SH, Sathananthan G, Gershon S, Clark C. Senile dementia: treatment with deanol. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1977 Jun;25(6):241-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.1977.tb00407.x. PMID: 864168

[32] Cortisol responses to awakening stress were significantly different in individuals suffering from stress-related fatigue after receiving rhodeola rosea extract compared with a placebo: 
Olsson EM, von Schéele B, Panossian AG. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the standardised extract shr-5 of the roots of Rhodiola rosea in the treatment of subjects with stress-related fatigue. Planta Med. 2009 Feb;75(2):105-12. doi: 10.1055/s-0028-1088346. Epub 2008 Nov 18. PMID: 19016404


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